1) Origin of the construction. Causes. The time.
The construction of the original wall began 2000 years ago, the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC), when the unification of China at the initiative of Emperor Qin Shihuang. Several walls built by various independent kingdoms to protect against nomadic incursions were interconnected.
The emperor ordered the construction of a wall to protect the northern border attack Xiongnu tribe related to the Huns. In the 3rd century BC the Chinese completed their first wall to hold the invaders from the north. The wall was rebuilt in the 15th century under the Ming Dynasty.
2) construction time (duration, difficulty, length).
The Great Wall of China was made up of a series of small fortresses. The walls that connected the fortresses them in flat areas were replaced in some places by bodies of water and mountains and formed natural ramparts. The materials used were local products and the walls were generally made of earth. In places where the earth was missing was building on the stone. All subsequent dynasties imitated this model. This work required the participation of hundreds of thousands of workers. An estimated 180 million cubic meters of earth used to form the core of the book, which, according to legend would have added the dead bodies to the task workers. The wall never fulfills its primary function: to contain the invaders. The project was spread out over more than a century and cost of labor and materials was colossal. If all these bricks were used to build a wall 5m high on 1m wide, it would be enough to go around the world. Its system of watchtowers allowed to send signals by lighting wolf droppings, and report promptly to the capital and the movement of enemy troops. Under the Ming, it began to overhaul the entire book, this time by covering brick and stone slabs. The project was spread out over more than a century and cost of labor and materials was colossal.
3) What is it used after its construction?
In the 19th century, neighboring villagers used its bricks to build farms, and during the revolution, the Communist soldiers used it to build barracks. She could disappear entirely if it had not been saved by tourism.
4) What is he today?
The wall fell into oblivion and whole sections collapsed. Several sections have been recently restored with Bada Ling (1957) is by far the most touristy. Today there are fewer than 2500 km.
5) A visit to the Great Wall of China.
The Great Wall is easily explored from Beijing: 2 hours enough to get there, at least to the nearest access point. Indeed, to reach the Great Wall, and walk in his way guard, it is necessary to go to one of the access point equipped and provided for tourists, where the wall is also restored the Entry is also paid (around 40 yuan, € 4). It is possible to take a hike, or even bivouac there, if your career requires more than one day.
The tourist buses all converge nearest Beijing access point, towards which is the Bada Ling. The site is heavily visited (especially the Chinese) there is an all-inclusive ticket round trip by bus (can you get to your hotel) and entry ticket for only 50 yuan (€ 5). Other access points are possible: Huancayo exchange Mutineer you, Sima silent, or ling Jinan.
To fully enjoy the site, it is therefore advisable to avoid Bada ling. We can provide a good half-day hike on the Great Wall:
You can rent a taxi in the morning in Beijing to Jinan filing ling, and waited for me to Sima pillowcase. It takes about 3 hours drive to get there from the center of Beijing, then better leave at dawn is. But the beautiful scenery are worth very much worth it. The hike takes about 5 hours: the path is sometimes quite steep, and must use his hands to climb. What is certain is that the Great Wall leave a lasting impression ...